Diagnosing Cancer

The Cancer Journey

Diagnosing Cancer

Scans : help to visualize the location, size and spread (metastases) of tumours in your body. In other words, scans help us to determine what “stage” the cancer is. Scans also give an idea as to the site of origin of the tumour and where best to obtain a biopsy. In general, we recommend the use of PET-CT scans, CT Scans, MRI or ultrasound for staging purposes. We recommend that these scans be done BEFORE embarking on any treatment.

Biopsy : Ultimately in the vast majority of cases a biopsy needs to be done. A biopsy is the removal of tissue (a small portion of the tumour) in order to examine it under a microscope in more detail.

Endoscopy: The incision of a thin and flexible tube that has a light and camera attached to the tip within the body. This tube can be inserted via the nose or mouth (to look at the nose, throat, lung airways, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum), rectum (to look at the anus, rectum, colon) or vagina to view and closely inspect the insides of a patient. During this procedure, doctors may also be able to take a biopsy for further investigation.

Having An Endoscopy For Stomach Cancer

Colonoscopy | Tests and scans

What is a CT-Guided Lung Nodule Biopsy?

Histopathology – the tumour or biopsy is examined under a microscope. This is the most definitive method in which to confirm a cancer diagnosis (benign versus malignant)

Immunohistochemistry: is to use special stains on the cancer cells to determine the origin of a tumour eg. whether it is a primary breast, lung, colon cancer etc.

Molecular Profiling:is to use specialized laboratory techniques to examine the genetic of the cancer to find mutations that might be suitable for targeted therapies.